Effects of different types of warm-ups on performance by young volleyball players

Main Article Content

Jaroslav Popelka
Gabriel Bujdos
Pavol Pivovarniček


The study aimed to compare the impact of warm-up with dynamic stretching (DS), warm-up with foam roller (FR), and warm-up with a combination of FR and DS (CO) on the performance of movement indicators in tests conducted on young volleyball players (n = 8, age = 15.4 ± 0.5 years, height = 176.3 ± 8.6 cm, weight = 64.5 ± 10.9 kg) during the competition year 2021/2022. To assess the effects of warm-up methods (DS, FR, CO), performance in various movement tests was compared. The tests included the sit and reach test (SR), a 1 kg ball throw in a kneeling position (H1), squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), sit-up test (SU), E-Test (ET), and run to cones (RC). The One-way ANOVA analysis did not reveal significant differences in the effects of DS, FR, and CO warm-ups (p > .05) across all investigated indicators. The effect size coefficient (η2) indicated negligible differences (η2 < 0.01), except for the ET indicator, where a small effect size (η2 = 0.028, 95%CI: 0.04-0.31) favoured DS. These findings carry social importance as they contribute to enhancing the efficacy of warm-up routines, both in sports performance and health considerations.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Popelka, J., Bujdos, G., & Pivovarniček, P. (2024). Effects of different types of warm-ups on performance by young volleyball players. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise , 19(3), 757-766. https://doi.org/10.55860/pv7whd26
Performance Analysis of Sport
Author Biographies

Jaroslav Popelka, Matej Bel University

Faculty of Sports Science and Health.

Gabriel Bujdos, Matej Bel University

Faculty of Sports Science and Health.

Pavol Pivovarniček, Matej Bel University

Faculty of Sports Science and Health.

How to Cite

Popelka, J., Bujdos, G., & Pivovarniček, P. (2024). Effects of different types of warm-ups on performance by young volleyball players. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise , 19(3), 757-766. https://doi.org/10.55860/pv7whd26


Behara B, and Jacobson BH. (2017). Acute Effects of Deep Tissue Foam Rolling and Dynamic Stretching on Muscular Strength, Power, and Flexibility in Division I Linemen. J Strength Cond Res. 31(4):888-892. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001051

Behm DG, Bambury A, Cahill F, and Power K. (2004). Effect of acute static stretching on force, balance, reaction time, and movement time. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 36(8):1397-1402. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000135788.23012.5F

Brahim S, and Mohamad Chan EW. (2020). Acute effect of dynamic stretching versus combined static dynamic stretching on speed performance among male Sukma Sarawak 2016 sprinters. J phys educ sports sci. 9(1):1-8.

Cheatham SW, and Stull KR. (2018). Comparison of three different density type foam rollers on knee range of motion and pressure pain threshold: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 13(3):474-482. https://doi.org/10.26603/ijspt20180474

Cohen J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Curran PF, Fiore RD, and Crisco JJ. (2008). A comparison of the pressure exerted on soft tissue by 2 myofascial rollers. J Sport Rehabil. 17(4):432-442. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.17.4.432

Dalrymple KJ, Davis SE, Dwyer GB, and Moir GL. (2010). Effect of static and dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance in collegiate women volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res. 24(1):149-155. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b29614

Faigenbaum AD, McFarland JE, Schwerdtman JA, Ratamess NA, Kang J, and Hoffman JR. (2006). Dynamic warm-up protocols, with and without a weighted vest, and fitness performance in high school female athletes. J Athl Train. 41(4):357-63.

Fletcher IM. (2010). The effect of different dynamic stretch velocities on jump performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 109(3):491-498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1386-x

Gerdijan N, Perić D, Ljubojević A, and Vukić Ž. (2021). Effects of static and dynamic stretching exercises on unilateral hamstring to quadriceps strength ratio. Advances in Physical Education, 11(1):89-102. https://doi.org/10.4236/ape.2021.111007

Guissard N, Duchateau J. (2014). Effect of static stretch training on neural and mechanical properties of the human plantar-flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve. 29(2):248-255. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.10549

Haff GG, and Triplett NT. (2015). Essentials of strength training and conditioning (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Harriss DJ., and Atkinson G. (2015). Ethical Standards in Sport and Exercise Science Research: 2016 Update. Int J Sports Med. 36(14):1121-1124. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1565186

Hough PA, Ross EZ, and Howatson G. (2009). Effects of dynamic and static stretching on vertical jump performance and electromyographic activity. J Strength Cond Res. 23(2):507-512. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31818cc65d

Kasahara K, Konrad A, Yoshida R, Murakami Y, Sato S, Koizumi R, Behm DG, and Nakamura M. (2023). The comparison between foam rolling either combined with static or dynamic stretching on knee extensors' function and structure. Biology of Sport. 40(3):753-760. https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2023.119987

Kirmizigil B, Ozcaldiran B, and Colakoglu M. (2014). Effects of three different stretching techniques on vertical jumping performance. J Strength Cond Res. 28(5):1263-1271. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000268

Konrad A, Nakamura M, Bernsteiner D, and Tilp M. (2021). The Accumulated Effects of Foam Rolling Combined with Stretching on Range of Motion and Physical Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Sports Sci Med. 20(3):535-545. https://doi.org/10.52082/jssm.2021.535

Lee CL, Chu IH, Lyu BJ, Chang WD, and Chang NJ. (2018). Comparison of vibration rolling, nonvibration rolling, and static stretching as a warm-up exercise on flexibility, joint proprioception, muscle strength, and balance in young adults. J Sports Sci. (22):2575-2582. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1469848

Lin WC, Lee CL, and Chang NJ. (2020). Acute Effects of Dynamic Stretching Followed by Vibration Foam Rolling on Sports Performance of Badminton Athletes. J Sports Sci Med. 19(2):420-428.

MacDonald GZ, Penney MD, Mullaley ME, Cuconato AL, Drake CD, Behm DG, and Button DC. (2013). An acute bout of self-myofascial release increases range of motion without a subsequent decrease in muscle activation or force. J Strength Cond Res. 27(3):812-821. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825c2bc1

Mann DP, and Jones MT. (1999). Guidelines to the implementation of a dynamic stretching program. Strength Cond J. 21(6):53-55. https://doi.org/10.1519/1533-4295(1999)021<0053:GTTIOA>2.0.CO;2

Nakamura M, Sato S, Ryosuke K, Yoshida R, Yasaka K, Yhata K and Konrad A. (2022). Comparison between foam rolling with and without vibration on passive and active plantar flexor muscle properties. J Strength Cond Res. 36(12): 3339-3344. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000004123

Peacock CA, Krein DD, Silver TA, Sanders GJ, VON Carlowitz KA. (2014). An Acute Bout of Self-Myofascial Release in the Form of Foam Rolling Improves Performance Testing. Int J Exerc Sci. 7(3):202-211.

Perrier ET, Pavol MJ, and Hoffman MA. (2011). The acute effects of a warm-up including static or dynamic stretching on countermovement jump height, reaction time, and flexibility. J Strength Cond Res. 25(7):1925-1931. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e73959

Pescatello LS. (2014). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: American College of Sports Medicine.

Popelka J, and Pivovarnicek P. (2018). Comparison of the effect of static and dynamic stretching on the force-velocity capabilities of young volleyball players. J Phys Educ Sport. 18(4):2314-2318. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2018.04349

Popelka J, and Pivovarnicek P. (2022). The effect comparison of foam rolling and dynamic stretching on performance in motion tests by young volleyball players: a pilot study. Phys Act Rev. 10(2): 140-149. https://doi.org/10.16926/par.2022.10.28

Richman ED, Tyo BM, and Nicks CR. (2018). Combined Effects of Self-Myofascial Release and Dynamic Stretching on Range of Motion, Jump, Sprint, and Agility Performance. J Strength Cond Res. 33(7):1795-1803. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002676

Rubini EC, Costa AL, and Gomes PS. (2007). The effects of stretching on strength performance. Sports Med. 37(3):213-224. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200737030-00003

Ryan ED, Everett KL, Smith DB, Pollner C, Thompson BJ, Sobolewski EJ, and Fiddler RE. (2014). Acute effects of different volumes of dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance, flexibility and muscular endurance. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 34(6):485-492. https://doi.org/10.1111/cpf.12122

Seçer E, and Özer Kaya D. (2022). Comparison of Immediate Effects of Foam Rolling and Dynamic Stretching to Only Dynamic Stretching on Flexibility, Balance, and Agility in Male Soccer Players. J Sport Rehabil. 31(1):10-16. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2021-0017

Shelton J, and Kumar GP. (2009). Comparison between static and dynamic warm-up exercise regimes on lower limb muscle power. Health, 1(2):117-120. https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2009.12019

Smith JC, Pridgeon B, and Hall MC. (2018). Acute Effect of Foam Rolling and Dynamic Stretching on Flexibility and Jump Height. J Strength Cond Res. 32(8):2209-2215. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002321

Stojanovic MDM, Mikic M, Vucetic V, Belegisanin B, Karac A, Bianco A, and Drid P. (2020). Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance in adolescent basketball players. Gazz Med Ital 181(6):417-424. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0393-3660.20.04575-1

Su H, Chang NJ, Wu WL, Guo LY., and Chu IH. (2017). Acute effects of foam rolling, static stretching, and dynamic stretching during warm-ups on muscular flexibility and strength in young adults. Journal of sport rehabilitation, 26(6):469-477. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2016-0102

Weppler CH., and Magnusson SP. (2010). Increasing muscle extensibility: a matter of increasing length or modifying sensation? Phys Ther, 90(3):438-449. https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20090012

Wiewelhove T, Döweling A, Schneider C, Hottenrott L, Meyer T, Kellmann M, Pfeiffer M, and Ferrauti A. (2019). A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Foam Rolling on Performance and Recovery. Front Physiol. 10:376. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00376

Yanaoka T, Yoshimura A, Iwata R, Fukuchi M, and Hirose N. (2021). The effect of foam rollers of varying densities on range of motion recovery. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 26:64-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2020.09.002

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.